site's frequently used terminology




AKA CO2 or  greenhouse gas resulting from human activities and  I.C.E emission, harmless to health but insidiously contributes  to earth greenhouse gas
formation expansion that accelerates the threat of global warming  as well as increases the magnitude and frequency of extreme global weather instabilities

a process by definition , where no heat is supplied but where work is done


Otto cycle Controlled-Air Intake Cycle aka: S.I.     (Otto cycle fuel mixture control system using a throttle to control fuel/air mixture)

Otto cycle; Controlled-Neutralized Air Intake Cycle (aka: S.I. throttled Otto cycle engine with a neutralizng Delta P = 0 condition (where VVICC under-pressure simultaneously matches its cylinder's under-pressure
during Otto intake cycle

                                                                                                                                                  greenhouse gas                                                                                                                                                             

DeltaP or Δp* condition (s):
During Otto intake-cycle, the dynamic air pressure difference between the air pressure onto the piston's crown upper face versus
the air pressure exerted to the same piston's under face in the cylinder exposed to  VVICC crankcase pressure

When Δp condition is   <  0  =  pumping-gain  assistance     ~ >∆ ≥ ≤><    DeltaP Δp*    <  0

DeltaP Δp condition is  =  0  =  no-pumping-loss friction   as D.I.   (direct fuel Injection system)

DeltaP Δp condition is  >  0   =   pumping-loss friction      

very fine carbon dust expelled during exhaust cycle known to cause cancer

GDI, : a UAIC fuel system AKA: Gasoline Direct Fuel Injection using combination of throttled homogeneous and un-throttled stratified charge mode  
Green House Gas emission aka :CO2 affecting global warming

a turbocharger devised to reduce air pressure of closed loop system re. . light turbo compound engine (Canadian & US patent)

a problematic condition affecting UAIC  (uncontrolled air Intake cycle engines)  affecting direct fuel injection Otto cycle I.C.E.  either C.I.  diesel or S.I. direct gasoline fuel injection system stratified charge or
homogeneous charge fuel system injecting fuel directly into the cylinder and therefore does not permit any fuel spray to flow and clean deposits that can collect on backside of intake valve creating troublesome
intake valve carbon build-up possibilities. This problem is  more prevalent with larger displacement S.I. Otto cycle ICUA engine strategy that can negatively affect engine operation and emissions of direct fuel injection
system since no fuel passes over to clean the carbon deposit accumulated on the intake valves to clean them. Conventional PCV system  allow crankcase oil vapour mist and blowby  vapour to be carried over back to
the intake valve ports to deposit on the backside of the intake valve after the engine has been frequently operating at critical sustained light-load operating conditions* . The solution requires more frequent and more
strickly enforced oil change schedule to alleviate this condition. Otto cycle CAIC and NCAIC strategy are robust in this regard, and immune to this problem this insures utmost long term dependable trouble-free
required operation. (refer to:
Volkswagen AG patent 6,866,031)   re: carbon on intake valve

LIGHT TURBO COMPOUND engine variant :
a patented closed-loop pneumatic coupling turbo-compound S.I. engine strategy improvement to Otto cycle pumping work
providing pumping-loss neutralisation at part-load of CAIC engine and can if necessary be optimised to provide CAIC engine beneficial
pumping-gain. It can also further enhance UAIC fuel system specific fuel
efficiency significantly.

                                                               Swedish word for `just right; not too big and not too small`                                                                                      


                                                                                            MEP: mean effective pressure in the cylinder during combustion (power stroke)                                                                                                         

MILD-HYBRID: essentially conventional fossil-fuel vehicles equipped with one motor/generator in a parallel configuration) allowing the engine to be turned off whenever stopped, yet restart quickly.
Mild hybrids may employ regenerative brake some level of power assist to the I.C.E.  but mild hybrids do not have an exclusive electric-only mode of  propulsion.

MILD-HYBRID Assist-Mode: essentially an assistance mode for conventional fossil-fuel MILD-HYBRID vehicles equipped with an electrically assisted inverted function turbocharger
can allow the engine to be turned off yet to be able to restart quickly just as a MILD-HYBRID.

Mini-Hybrid typically employ electric assisted IFT to assist an CAIC strategy ICE whenever a vehicle must remain in motion and move slowly at very light engine load
either at idle or just above engine idle speed. Useful for working utility vehicles (pick-up) and for personal marine craft (day cruiser) during docking manoeuvres.

                                          NGV : natural gas vehicle                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

NOx:   nitrous oxide emission is an undesirable health threatening harmful health raw combustion cycle emission barrier that is inevitably  generated during Otto Combustion cycle as ideal efficiency carnot cycle
dictates to generate higher combustion heath and higher combustion mean effective pressure or lean fuel mixture conditions are being pushed to their limits while seeking to optimised Otto combustion cycle thermal
efficiency in an effort to reduce specific fuel consumption .NOx can be neutralised by using costly exhaust system's catalitic converter using precious

PUMPING-GAIN INTAKE CYCLE ASSISTANCE:   unique patented LTCev fuel efficieny enhancement due to Delta P advantage ery moderate fuel efficiency gain created by state of the art high efficiency
direct fuel injection combined with turbocharging system such as: S.I. Otto Ford Ecoboost -C.I. Otto Volkswagen TDI  
can be provided with beneficial enhanced fuel efficiency (during Intake cycle at higher engine load)

PHEV: aka: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle fully electric power plug-in for recharging battery. (Nissan Leaf) Full Mode Hybrid Plug-In Hybrid using a conventional hybrid drive train,
paired with a larger battery pack that can also be plugged in to recharge it Toyota Prius, Chevrolet Cruze hybrid Two mode Hybrid. In short, a two-mode is a hybrid vehicle that can operate
in two distinct ways (modes). The first mode works much like hybrid. It is the second mode the hybrid system can combine I.C.E. and electric motor and charging generator and other
very specific vehicle/task/traffic requirements.

PUMPING LOSS-FRlCTION : parasite work wasted for cylinder's admission and evacuation air pumping that is directly proportional to engine displacement and inversely proportional to the air-control severity at part-
load.   pdf

: parasite work wasted for cylinder's admission and evacuation air pumping that is directly proportional to engine displacement and inversely proportional to the air-control severity at part-
load. /Clean-and-Cool.pdf

PUMPING-GAIN ASSITANCE CAPABILITY: positive atmospheric pressure pumping-assistance work onto piston crown due to indirect coupling pneumatic resulting from
some level of useful air pressure evacuation work performed by the inverted-function-turbocharger while assisting evacuation and displacement of  
small air volume of a cylinder's VVICC of a cylinder
performing its Otto intake cycle while transferrirng said evacuated air into other larger combined air volumes composed of the VVICC of a cylinder performing its Otto exhaust cycle as well as
other supplemental pneumatic larger volume chambers.

PUMPING-LOSS FRICTION : gas exchange pneumatic pumping work mainly performed to allow air to enter the cylinder during Otto intake cycle and to be evacuate during the exhaust gas out of said cylinder


ROBUST: VW  US 6866031 B2 the capacity to avoid collecting heavy carbon deposit on the backside of intake valve ( said carbon deposit is partially due to issues related to PCV system load.

RE-EV  aka: Range Extended Electric Vehicle powered solely by an electric motor that gets its energy either from a lithium-ion battery & or a gasoline-powered generator once the pack is depleted (Chevrolet Volt)

RAW EMISSION: untreated emission before the treatment in exhaust system by catalytic converter

RADIANT HEAT LOSS: dissipated internal combustion engine heat energy wasted through complete engine and cooling system


Sulfur content :in fossil fuels negatively affect catalytic converter useful life and efficiency

Fail safe SAFETY increase engine fuel efficiency for light aircraft engine, in order to extend aircraft flying range the as the pilot is not required to have to alter fuel-mixture from rich to lean


THROTTLED* ENGINE ICCA strategy: engine including comprehensive variable valve lift and timing systems: Fiat Multi-Air, BMW valvetronic, also Toyota , Nissan , etc.


UAIC : Otto cycle un-controlled-air intake-cycle (aka: GDI direct fuel injected engine)

UAIC strategy: fuel system where fuel only is controlled and timely injected directly into cylinder

VVICC:  Variable Volume Individual Cylinder-Crankcases: are individual crankcase's dry-sump partitions  for turbo compound pneumatic coupling requirements
smaller volume dry-sump partitions of the crankcase housing for the crankshaft & connecting rods, they are pneumatically distinct and separated from the usual larger wet-sump crankcase housing of an engine oil
(Oil sump). The unique wet-sump/dry-sump (patented) LTCev engine crankcase configuration insures special considerations to only allow minimal stray oils droplets in the evacuated air from the dry-sump to enter the
IFT , before entering into neightboring VVICC.  Note:LTCev's VVICC are somewhat similar to two cycle engine multiple cylinder's crankcase's partitions.