site's frequently used terminology
Canadian Patent CA 2,732,477


AKA CO2 or  greenhouse gas resulting from human activities and  I.C.E emission, harmless to health but insidiously contributes  to earth greenhouse gas formation expansion that accelerates
the threat of global warming  as well as increases the magnitude and frequency of extreme global weather instabilities

a process by definition , where no heat is supplied but where work is done


Otto cycle Controlled-Air Intake Cycle aka: S.I.     (Otto cycle fuel mixture control system using a throttle to control fuel/air mixture)

Otto cycle; Controlled-Neutralized Air Intake Cycle (aka: S.I. throttled Otto cycle engine with a neutralizng Delta P = 0 condition (where VVICC under-pressure simultaneously matches its
cylinder's under-pressure during Otto intake cycle

greenhouse gas                                                                                                                                                             

DeltaP* or Δp* condition (s):
During Otto intake-cycle, the dynamic air pressure difference between the air pressure onto the piston's crown upper face versus the air pressure exerted to the same piston's under face in the
cylinder exposed to  VVICC crankcase pressure

When Δp* condition is   <  0  =  pumping-gain  assistance                                ~ >∆ ≥ ≤><    DeltaP Δp*    <  0

DeltaP Δp* condition is  =  0  =  no-pumping-loss friction   as D.I.   (direct fuel Injection system)

DeltaP Δp* condition is  >  0   =   pumping-loss friction      

very fine carbon dust expelled during exhaust cycle known to cause cancer

GDI, : a UAIC fuel system AKA: Gasoline Direct Fuel Injection using combination of throttled homogeneous and un-throttled stratified charge mode  

Green House Gas emission aka :CO2 affecting global warming

a turbocharger devised to reduce air pressure of closed loop system      re. light turbo compound engine (Canadian & US patent)

a problematic condition affecting UAIC  (uncontrolled air Intake cycle engines)  affecting direct fuel injection Otto cycle I.C.E.  either C.I.  (diesel) or S.I. direct (gasoline) fuel injection system
stratified charge or homogeneous charge fuel system that injects fuel directly into the cylinder and therefore does not permit any fuel spray to flow and clean deposits that can have collected
on backside of intake valves creating troublesome air flow disturbances from intake valve carbon build-up possibilities. Accumulation of carbon-deposits build-up on intake valve's backside
negatively affects the critically important smooth air-flow in the cylinder and disrupts air-fuel optimized critical atomisation charge mist increasing raw emissions as well as specific fuel
consumption.  This problem can be more prevalent with larger displacement S.I. Otto cycle ICUA engine strategy and negatively affects engine operation and emissions of direct fuel injection
system since no fuel passes over to clean the carbon deposit accumulated on the intake valves to clean them. Conventional PCV system  allow crankcase oil vapour mist and combustion
blowby  vapours to be carried over back to the intake valve ports to deposit on the backside of the intake valve after the engine has been frequently operating at critical sustained light-load
operating conditions* . The solution requires more frequent and more strictly enforced oil change schedule to alleviate this condition. Otto cycle LTCev CAIC and NCAIC engines are more
robust in this regard, and immune to this problem insuring long term dependable trouble-free required operation. (refer to:
Volkswagen AG patent 6,866,031)   re: carbon on intake valve

LIGHT TURBO COMPOUND engine variant* :
a patented closed-loop lightweight pneumatic coupling turbo-compound S.I. engine strategy improvement to Otto cycle pumping work providing pumping-loss neutralisation at part-load of
CAIC engine and can provide CAIC engine beneficial
pumping-gain. It is also fully compatible and capable to significantly enhance UAIC direct fuel injection system specific fuel efficiency.

Swedish word for "just right"; being not too big nor not too small. /
Lagom engine  aka: full size displacement engine operating at moderate BMEP                                                                            
providing flat ample flexible power curve engine not relying on downsizing compromise to reduce specific fuel consumption,  using LTCev  pumping-gain advantage  and                              
capable of low raw NOx emissions and long-life minimal blow-by emissions that favorably extends mandatory oil changes .                                                                                       

MEP: mean effective pressure in the cylinder during combustion (power stroke)                                                                                                         

MILD-HYBRID: essentially conventional fossil-fuel vehicles equipped with one motor/generator in a parallel configuration) allowing the engine to be turned off whenever stopped, yet restart
quickly. Mild hybrids may employ regenerative brake some level of power assist to the I.C.E.  but mild hybrids do not have an exclusive electric-only mode of  propulsion.

MILD-HYBRID Assist-Mode: essentially an assistance mode for conventional fossil-fuel MILD-HYBRID vehicles equipped with an electrically assisted inverted function turbocharger can allow
the engine to be turned off yet to be able to restart quickly just as a MILD-HYBRID.

Mini-Hybrid typically employ electric assisted IFT to assist an CAIC strategy ICE whenever a vehicle must remain in motion and move slowly at very light engine load either at idle or just above
engine idle speed. Useful for working utility vehicles (pick-up) and for personal marine craft (day cruiser) during docking manoeuvres.

natural gas vehicle                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

NOx:   nitrous oxide emission is an undesirable health threatening harmful health raw combustion cycle emission barrier that is inevitably  generated during Otto Combustion cycle as ideal
efficiency carnot cycle dictates to generate higher combustion heath and higher combustion mean effective pressure or lean fuel mixture conditions are being pushed to their limits while
seeking to optimised Otto combustion cycle thermal efficiency in an effort to reduce specific fuel consumption .NOx can be neutralised by using costly exhaust system's catalitic converter
using precious metals.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

PUMPING-GAIN* INTAKE CYCLE ASSISTANCE:   unique multi-cylinder patented LTCev fuel efficieny enhancement due to   Δp  <  0 providing available atmospheric pressure into the cylinder
during intake cycle and providing pumping-assistance and providing higher pressure into the VVICC of a cylinder performing its exhaust cycle during at higher engine loads.

PHEV: aka: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle fully electric power plug-in for recharging battery. Full Mode Hybrid Plug-In Hybrid using a conventional hybrid drive train, paired with a larger
battery pack that can also be plugged in to recharge it Toyota Prius, Chevrolet Cruze hybrid Two mode Hybrid. In short, a two-mode is a hybrid vehicle that can operate in two distinct ways
(modes). The first mode works much like hybrid. It is the second mode the hybrid system can combine I.C.E. and electric motor and charging generator and very specific vehicle/task/traffic

PUMPING LOSS-FRlCTION : parasite work wasted for cylinder's air admission  and exhaust gas evacuation. Said pumping friction that is mostly directly proportional to engine displacement
and inversely proportional to the air-control severity at part-load during intake cycle.of CAIC S.I. Otto cycle  engine   

: parasite work wasted for cylinder's admission and evacuation air pumping that is directly proportional to engine displacement and inversely proportional to the air-
control severity at part-load and to evacuate the exhaust gas out of said cylinder. /Clean-and-Cool.pdf http://www.swri.

PUMPING-GAIN *ASSITANCE CAPABILITY: positive atmospheric pressure pumping-assistance work onto piston crown during intake cycle due to indirect coupling pneumatic resulting from
some level of useful air pressure evacuation work performed by the inverted-function-turbocharger while evacuating and displacing the small air volume of the VVICC of a cylinder performing
its intake cycle of a multi-cylinder CAIC engine into other larger volume VVICC and other supplemental pneumatic larger volume chambers.

ROBUST*: VW  US 6866031 B2 the capacity to avoid collecting heavy carbon deposit on the backside of intake valve ( said carbon deposit is partially due to issues related to PCV system load.

RE-EV  aka: Range Extended Electric Vehicle powered solely by an electric motor that gets its energy either from a lithium-ion battery & or a gasoline-powered generator once the battery pack
is depleted (Chevrolet Volt)

RAW EMISSION: untreated emission before the treatment of the exhaust system catalytic converter

RADIANT HEAT LOSS: dissipated internal combustion engine heat energy wasted through complete engine and cooling system

Sulfur content :the sulfur content in fossil fuels that negatively affects catalytic converter useful life and efficiency

Fail safe SAFETY increase engine fuel efficiency for light aircraft engine, in order to extend aircraft flying range the as the pilot is not required to have to alter fuel-mixture from rich to lean

THROTTLED* ENGINE ICCA** strategy: engine including comprehensive variable valve lift and timing systems: Fiat Multi-Air, BMW valvetronic, also Toyota , Nissan , etc.

UAIC* : Otto cycle un-controlled-air intake-cycle (aka: GDI direct fuel injected engine)

UAIC strategy: fuel system where fuel only is controlled and timely injected directly into cylinder

VVICC*:  Variable Volume Individual Cylinder-Crankcases: are individual crankcase's dry-sump partitions  for turbo compound pneumatic coupling requirements
smaller volume dry-sump partitions of the crankcase housing for the crankshaft & connecting rods, they are pneumatically distinct and separated from the usual larger wet-sump crankcase
housing of an engine oil (Oil sump). The unique wet-sump/dry-sump (patented) LTCev engine crankcase configuration insures special considerations to only allow minimal stray oils droplets in
the evacuated air from the dry-sump to enter the IFT , before entering into neightboring VVICC.  Note:LTCev's VVICC are somewhat similar to two cycle engine multiple cylinder's crankcase's