hic inceptant futura

LTCev can nevertheless provide a useful non-urban affordable efficient S.I. Otto cycle engine in the form of the  CNAIC strategy as a promising robust more
cost effective extended range vehicle engine albeit less efficient engine alternative to

A most cost effective significant beneficial advantage of a S.I. direct fuel injection GDI or UAIC strategy over other CAIC strategy engine including most indirect fuel injection
system engine is mostly because it reduces part-load pumping-loss and therefore specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission and not because it necessary increases
power output. Direct fuel Injection GDI also provides other advantages such as allowing to increase compression without knocking and to reduce fuel quenching
disadvantage, but requires critical stratified mode operation. Direct Fuel Injection S.I. gazoline engine
(neither do C.I. Diesel engine )are UAIC strategy engine and do not
use a throttle when operated in lean stratified mode part-load. In state of the art UAIC strategy engines S.I. or GDI.engine, air flow may be only aspirated or charged but can
not per say accurately be controlled, only the fuel is precisely controlled and direct fuel injection system can and must be used to adequately control the cylinder air-fuel
charging requirements. Engine raw emissions levels tend to be lower but NOx emissions are more significant and becoming costly to control adequately with the S.I.  GDI
direct injection UAIC strategy engine. S.I. direct fuel injection gains can only be provided by a very precise complex control over the amount of fuel spraying charge, the fuel
charge duration, and the distribution level in the cylinder of fuel charge with uncontrolled incoming air, the desired homogeneity-stratification optimum distribution of fuel and
fuel injection and spark timings that are varied according to the varying load conditions. Since there is no way to control air* in an UAIC strategy engine, either spark ignited
or compression ignited, varying and control engine power does not imply any throttling losses or intake cycle
 pumping-loss-friction as it is also the case with C.I. diesel
strategy engine. On the other hand, unlike the less critical non stoichiometric air-fuel mixture less-critical C.I. Diesel UAIC strategy, the spark-ignited GDI direct injection
engine using gasoline air-fuel mixture (stratified & stoichiometric) is a lot more critical and faces a more difficult task to adequately provide air-fuel mixture when compared to
a conventional CAIC fuel injected throttled* engine, GDI improve efficiency, part-load higher fuel efficiency is cost effectively achieved partly by eliminating intake cycle
part-load pumping losses friction; when the engine operates at part-load without  any control from the throttle plate. Engine speed and power is finely electronically controlled
by the engine control unit/engine management system (EMS) that in light aircrafts and marine engine applications is critical as it must remain fail-safe and must constantly
remain unaffected by any electronic stray signal, so that regulated fuel injection function and ignition timing may be safely achieved.

throttled engine* include current
gaseous fuels internal combustion engine automotive conversions (NGV Global news)  

The ability to positively control air along with fuel normally provided by a robust and simple throttle plate that control the incoming air flow and fuel supply is absent with the
UAIC engine strategy ( direct fuel injection) which results in being much more sensitive and vulnerable in reference to intake valve carbon build-up.Some crankcase
ventilation operation shortcomings exibited in harsh maintenance conditions, as blow-by leaking past the piston rings, of unburned fuel and incomplete combustion residue,
vapours collecting in the crankcase then emanating from
PCV system due to over extending  mandatory oil changes that can, when excessive, negatively interfere with the
critical direct fuel injectors fuel atomizing flow pattern of GDI direct fuel injection system and can lead to
intake valve carbon build-up that does negatively affect specific fuel
consumption and increase emissions.
VW  US 6866031 B2
The 1987 Brundtland Commission's report defined sustainable development as "development which meets the needs of current
generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".
In spite of its lower heat-content;
natural gas is advantageous as it emits substantially less raw emissions than gasoline.
The design rationale of the LTCev has been envisioned to effectively rationalise production cost of affordable homogeneous charge robust low
maintenance fuel efficient S.I. lightweight engine component capable of reducing CO2 emission ( specific fuel consumption) by neutralizing part-load
(useful) throttle induced pumping-loss 3 while being able to effectively curb NOx emission. These advantages could be now be realistically envisioned by
taking advantage of the possibility to use simple and affordable
CAIC strategy engine  together with a supplemental pneumatic coupling mean provided
by a light turbo compound engine variant that efficiently recuperates normally lost exhaust gas energy to neutralize part-load
pumping-loss friction of
CAIC strategy engine and also being able at higher engine loads to even provide substantial beneficial pumping-gain assistance to not only to the
normally aspirated or charged Otto
CNAIC engine strategy  but also to the Otto UAIC engine strategy  (GDI) .This can cost effectively improve fuel
efficiency of S.I. Otto engine, and lower its anthropogenic GHG emission and lower some  HC emission while rationalizing production cost for clean fuel
efficient Otto cycle I.C.E. used in conventional extended-range personal transportation vehicles and as a cost effective I.C.E. component for electric
hybrid vehicles. LTCev  is a new S.I. Otto cycle engine variant that is compatible with most state of the art Otto cycle systems, and benefits from robust
lightweight Δp pneumatic-coupling VVICC pumping system. Using an emerging turbocharger-derived technology to improves part-load fuel efficiency of
affordable CNAIC strategy S.I. Otto cycle engine  by
neutralizing its inherent engine part-load pumping-loss friction  load due to turbo compound adiabatic
process provided by Canadian patent 2,732,477 Light Turbo Compound engine variant. IT provides
beneficial pumping-gain advantage and also reduces
ring-pack friction for improved overall fuel consumption and reduces CO2 emission and fuel consumption at higher
MEP (high engine load) while not
increasing NOx emission.

The LTCev is suitable to provide pumping-gain assistance to complement both the  
CNAIC "controlled-neutralized-air intake-cycle" S.I. engine strategy
UOAIC  "un-controlled-optimized air intake cycle S.I. engine strategy (including S.I. GDI as well as D.I. Diesel engine). Furthermore, by opting to use a
light turbo compound homogeneous charged engine of "lagom" size, with ample wide low bottom end torque instead of using a more mechanically
strained, demanding stratified charge GDI harder-working
downsized engine for fuel efficiency, it could rationalize low emission, long-life and low
maintenance Otto I.C.E.fabrication and operation cost and can provide the possibility to initiate implementation of beneficial but brittle, innovative ceramic
engine components, in the near future, in order to initiate reduction of Otto cycle 's detrimental radiant heat losses, while curbing raw NOx emission and
reduce its emission reduction treatment costs.
According to:    US Energy's  Argonne National Laboratory     April 18-20, 2006

More I.C/E's Energy Is Lost to Friction Than Delivered to driving Wheels

The LTCev's IFT  recuperates some of the "normally-lost" Otto Cycle I.C.E. 35-40% exhaust gas energy to enhance
Otto air-pumping-cycles
(intake-exhaust pumping-task) to improve specific fuel efficiency
while curbing CO2 & NOx emissions
NOTE: Highest % of engine friction
comes from Otto cycle air pumping
tasks; where  
~15% more  pumping-
friction is generated
CAIC (throttled) H.C.S.I. engine
the air pumping
work generated by
(direct fuel injection) engine
Air Pumping
Friction 6%

U.A.I.C.     Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)     Copyright © Mechadyne International 2012   

There has been a considerable amount of research into the use of GDI to replace conventional port fuel injection during the recent last 10 years. Conventional port injected fuel
systems aim to mix the incoming fuel and air completely to produce a
homogeneous charge. Most if not all current GDI engines are used in a similar manner to accurately control
the fuel mass in the cylinder for each cycle, whilst still aiming to create a homogeneous charge by injecting fuel as early as possible in the cycle. The main area of GDI research
however has been the creation of a non-uniform air fuel mixture in the cylinder to allow engine output to be controlled without the need to restrict the air coming in to the
(CAIC ), hence minimising the intake pumping losses.* Ideally, the fuel distribution in the cylinder at part load would maintain an air-fuel ratio of 14.3:1 (stoichiometric)
local to the spark plug whilst being surrounded by air that is largely unmixed with the fuel. In principle, this stratified charge allows engine output to be controlled solely by the
quantity of fuel that is injected, whilst air may be drawn into the cylinder unrestricted by any throttle system
(CAIC). The engine is therefore able to run at very high overall
air-fuel ratios, which would not normally result in a combustible mixture, by maintaining a more conventional air-fuel ratio close to the spark plug. Charge stratification
** is
achieved by injecting the fuel into the cylinder as late in the cycle as possible so that complete mixing of the air and fuel is not possible. The fuel distribution in the cylinder is
controlled either by the surfaces of the piston and the combustion chamber local to the injector spray, by the air motion in the cylinder, or by a combination of both. Under full
load operation, the engine reverts to conventional homogeneous charge operation by injecting fuel early in the cycle. There is still however a benefit from using GDI at full load
due to in-cylinder charge cooling effects, which allows the use of a slightly higher compression ratio GDI  and throttleless operation  

In practice, the ideal distribution of air and fuel in the combustion chamber at part load of stratified charge engine is difficult to achieve, particularly across the
whole speed and load range of the engine. Hence, most or
no stratified charge GDI engine has completely or conveniently dispensed
with the conventional throttle to date
, although significant part load efficiency gains have been demonstrated.

** Charge stratification** is achieved by injecting the fuel into the cylinder as late in the cycle as possible so that complete mixing of the air and fuel is not possible.
this charge stratification condition that minimizes pumping-loss of should allow freedom not to require engine downsizing is actually jeopardized by the negative factor resulting from
intake valve carbon build-up that can be severe when the engine oil change interval are not strictly adhere to This condition is exacerbated especially if the vehicle's engine is often
operated at a light engine loads for some extended periods with current the state of the art PCV system.     

                                            R&DMI COPYRIGHT
Light Turbo Compound engine variant
* Energy

LRCgev Light Turbo Compound gas engine H.C.S.I. throttled engine
variant's useful work potential can
provide  ~ 15% more fuel efficiency
normal H.C.S.I. throttled engine H.C.S.I.