Awareness of the alarming climate changes resulting from increasing insidious anthropogenic emissions that the use of Internal
combustion engines contribute @ 20% + incited R&D MACHMA Inc. to ambitiously instigate means to further develop and better
adapt the century old thousands of times perfected into a reliable simple and proven lightweight and cost effective long proven and
dependable -power producer S.I.Otto cycle reciprocating piston internal Internal Combustion I.C.E. for the millenum's sustainable
requirements by improving turbo compound engines recuperatinng the normally lost and wasted exhaust cycle thermal energy high
fuel efficiency of turbo compound engine still immature technology by using new patented double complementary direct and indirect
coupling light, silent, and robust pneumatic coupling means arrangement allowing high fuel efficiency low GHG emission low carbon
footprint through and a low carbon footprint without increasing GHG nor cancerirenic emissions as diesel engine do.
low CO2 with low
NOx emissions
, with much cleaner and much quieter light turbo compound engine variant that could be more efficient and
compatible with
cleaner biogas (CNG,CH4) & biofuels  technology but retaining compatibility with existing advanced state of the art
fossil fuels control technology mainly aimed at improving Otto cycle I.C.E. specific fuel efficiency by as much as ~15%+ and
proportionnally reduce its CO2 anthropogenic emissions while providing new  technology that substantially reduces NOx emissions
and curb other forms of Otto cycle I.C.E. 's combustion generated raw emissions* such as : HC, CO, particulates matter, or soot,
Pneumatic coupling Light Turbo Compound engine variant       
individually partitioned VVICC dry-sump /wet-sump     IL4   LTCev
updated:Feb 17-2017
projected application: light turbo compound engine variant for
use in light airplane & light helicopter  used below 10,000 feet
S.I Otto cycle
SHELOM-mode fail-safe aero engine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The new
Light Turbo Compound engine variant (in development phase),  uses an IFT, or :inverted function turbocharger to recuperates exhaust gas energy more efficiently than prior art turbo compound engines by means of using  totally new, unique lightweight
indirect mean atmospheric pressure assisted pneumatic turbo compound engine coupling means. The LTCev ( Light Turbo Compound engine variant ) also differs from other prior art turbo compound engine by providing additional advantageous environmentally
beneficial reduction qualities such as reducing Otto cycle  various combustion related raw emissions such as : HC, NOx,CO, emissions reduction in addition to providing the main prior art turbo compound engine advantage such as:  
1- to substantially reduce
specific fuel consumption and also reduce ipso-facto said engine's combustion related CO2 emissions; and furthermore to provide additional advantages that include significant important engine oil contamination reduction;
 2 - to significantly simplify coupling
means components by making use of existing ( reciprocating pistons & connecting rods cylinders etc) ;
3- To virtually add any extra weight above the usual engine's weight of any normally turbo charged engine weight;  4- to virtually not increase any engine
component's wear & maintenance;
5- to maintain a robust smooth & silent engine operation; 6- to efficiently  provide a cost turbo compound engine using  new more efficient indirect pneumatic coupling means that uniquely allows to advantageously exploit
the advantage to use Δp or the pressure difference between the available atmospheric pressure on the piston's crown in the cylinder and the reduced air pressure under said piston generated by a patented  inverted function turbocharger ( IFT) that advantageously
uses the normally lost engine exhaust gas kinetic energy through a very low pressure turbine to generate a very advantageous timely sub-atmospheric silent air pressure condition from the IFT's air inlet impeller, said sub-atmospheric silent air
pressure condition from the IFT's air inlet impeller, that is timely communicated to a cylinder's crankase's VVICC during  the occurrences of said cylinder Otto intake cycle.

Assuming P1 being the timely pressure in said cylinder's crankcase's VVICC, and P2 being said cylinders pressure during Otto intake cycle then if  P1 is equal to P2   Δp =P1  

P1 (much reduced air pressure in the cylinder's crankcase VVICC ) during  said cylinder's Otto intake cycle than the available mean air pressure exerted onto said piston's crown during said piston Otto intake cycle this in effect creates a pressure difference
Δp between said cylinder's available ambient pressure  referred as: P1 or available atmospheric pressure exerting pressure onto said piston's top (crown) capable to overcome the timely reduced air pressure force exerted against said piston's underside and  
its cylinder crankcase's VVICC's under-pressure referred here as: P2 that is generated by the IFT during Otto intake cycle so that  when Otto cycle Delta P  condition  becomes: (p1 - p2) , then Δp < 0 in order to assist reducing air pumping load (& ipso-facto)
reducing specific fuel consumption of S.I. & C.I. Otto cycle I.C.E. (operated at sea level or low altitude) resulting in substantial specific fuel consumption and reduction of carbon footprint emissions  for most Otto cycle I.C.E.'s. Although the light turbo compound
engine variant does not need to be used with  direct fuel injection system ( GDI ) to improve fuel efficiency, both gain by being combined; the LTCev is compatible  with both CAIC and UAIC fuel systems and can significantly further improves them both fuel
system's specific fuel efficiency, but more when used with state of the art GDI direct fuel injection system. The Light Turbo Compound engine variant's adiabatic process is nevertheless fully compatible with most Otto Cycle's C.I. & S.I.  engine's latest
emerging technologies and capable of reducing both CO2 & HC emission while reducing or curbing raw NOx emissions that contributes to urban smog. Unlike other prior  art turbo compound engines investigated  (that are not indirectly assisted by by available
ambient atmospheric pressure) and were using  pressure turbine and were using much heavier and more costly electric generator/motor direct coupling ** , or as later than  WW2 era  mechanical coupling turbo compound engines that used problematic mechanical
complex gear-reduced
PRT blow-down turbine direct coupling** means ; the difference with the new light Turbo Compound variant with all its predecessors is by using  the Otto cycle already  existing reciprocating piston movements in the cylinder of multiple
cylinder conventional Otto cycle engine for its and theadvantage of a smooth,robust, lightweight and simplified indirect pneumatic coupling means useful and made possible by using air "opposing pressures differences" arrangement means generating DeltaP or
1qΔP pneumatic sequential negative  pressure pulses advantage generated by patented timely synchronized VVICC transfer valves arrangement and a patented IFT  (inverted function turbocharger) used to timely generate useful under-pressure in a cylinder's        
VVICC while said cylinder is performing its Otto  intake cycle that conveniently allows to take advantage of the available atmospheric pressure assistance onto said intake cycles piston top from  available ground-level atmospheric pressure's  therefeore creating
"indirect pneumatic coupling" interaction  onto said piston with said engine's wet-sump/dry-sump" VVICC crankcases controlled-under-pressure-air arrangement. This makes it possible to even neutralize C.A.I.C. engine pumping-loss friction during early sustained
engine-load, and beyond said load-point, it can allow to conveniently exploit the substantial ambient air barometric pressure energy potential entering the cylinder to generate advantageous ΔP *** by  allowing higher pressure to be exerted onto the piston crown
(during its Otto Intake cycle at sustained engine loads) than the under pressure generated by the IFT onto said piston underside facing the VVICC (during same Otto intake cycle) creating  Indirect beneficial pneumatic coupling ΔP  pumping-gain assistance
results in means to effectively optimize Otto gas-transfer-pumping-cycles & effectively enhances pumping work to reduce fuel consumption and therefore reducing engine's carbon footprint while curbing NOx & HC raw emissions as well as reducing particulates
emissions. (  for ASPIRATED, CHARGED, GDI , C.I, and ALL THROTTLED as well as homogeneous charge (gasoline & CNG engines )
Due to the adiabatic process used for this Otto cycle I.C.E.'s improvement, it  is  fully compatible with all C.A.I.C. & U.A.I.C. current available state of the art Otto fuel control systems and requires no alterations to the already set optimized specifications. It is
compatible with most other current state of the art engine systems; but more importantly, it is uniquely capable of significantly enhancing Otto cycle S.I. & C.I.'s engine's specific fuel efficiency and reduce its anthropogenic emissions. Optimizing Otto cycles
strategic inner air pumping-pressures can enhance engine's efficiency during most usable engine power range by conveniently recuperating some of the normally lost exhaust gas energy by means of an IFT : AKA :Inverted Function Turbocharger.


The Light Turbo Compound engine variant using a Turboscavenger's innovative induction means system providing indirect pneumatic coupling can readily controls S.I. Otto cycle
gaseous state fuels throttled engine's pumping-loss-friction emulating (GDI) Direct fuel Injection System's pumping-loss control achievement for S.I. Otto Cycle liquid state fuels while it can also provide for both the
CAIC & UAIC Ottto cycle engines
beneficial pumping-gain assistance.Although state of the art direct fuel injection system S.I. GDI is highly effective for S.I. liquid state fuel  such as gasoline to significantly reduce engine's fuel consumption and can be used by other non compressible liquid state
ls,to reduce pumping-loss friction, and to reduce CO2 antropogenic emissions, as well as reducing  other combustion's raw harmful emissions. However direct fuel injection system remains severely challenged   in regards to being used as efficiently
with compressible
gaseous state fuels  including HCNG & CNG, bioMethane fueled engine (as well as Hydrogen Otto I.C.E.).       Refer to : NERL

Since Direct Fuel Injection system works well with very high pressure injectors for timely and accurate fuel calibration with liquid and non-compressible heavier weight fuels  such as gasoline and petrol used for C.I. & S.I engines,  and because injection of non-compressible
heavier weight fuels  such as gasoline takes place directly into said cylinder with very high fuel spray' s energy into a much lighter weight air density medium inside the cylinder during Otto intake cycle it allows the advantage of removing the need for a throttle for controlling
said engine power more efficiently.

A very different situation prevails  for S.I Otto cycle using compressible lighter mass gaseous fuels. The popular and widely and long accepted method for controlling engine power of S.I. Otto cycle  gaseous fuels powered engines requires a throttle that does significantly
decrease the specific fuel efficiency unless successful some successful form of cryogenic gaseous fuel  injection  indirect pneumatic coupling is provided , or the Light Turbo Compound engine variation is incorporated to said  S.I Otto cycle using gaseous fuels. .        

Because CH4 and CNG are compressible lighter fuel than air ; e Light Turbo Compound's adiabatic pneumatic coupling process takes place in cylinder's VVICC  in the engine's dry-sump section of the engine crankcase, and does not disrupt the direct fuel injection.
Cylinder's  gas exchange process for intake and exhaust Otto cycles can be advantageously assisted and improved by up to 2:1 when GDI for non compressible liquid state fuels when is used in conjunction with the LTCev and substantially improve specific fuel efficiency
LTCev can not only allow to emulate the highly important pumping-loss-friction neutralisation benefit of direct fuel injection system to both the Otto S.I. & C.I. engines;
but can also  uniquely generate pumping-gain advantage to both liquid state fuel (gasoline - methanol ) homogeneous charge S.I & C.I engine and also to the gaseous state fuel CNG's throttled
homogeneous charge S.I. engine enabling the later to significantly extend the vehicle's useful range due to an anticipated fuel consumption reduction of
gaseous state CNG fuel,
by at least as much as up to 10-15% depending on useful load and therefore significantly reduce calorific energy discrepancybetween natural gas and gasoline.  
A  CNG fueled a CAIC (throttled) engine operated in a light turbo compound mode, ( LTC mode) can yield a fuel  consumption and extended range
that is closer to the same vehicle operated with gasoline using the same CAIC (throttled) engine in regard to the useful extended range to become a realistic attainable goal.
valuable site:
Indirect pneumatic coupling is furthermore fully compatible with the following CAIC and UAIC Otto cycle engine strategies: it also significantly reduces pumping-loss friction AND
can provide pumping-gain assistance for gaseous
CAIC (natural gas throttled fuel system) proven & widely used for CNG bi-fuel vehicle's engine) using liquid  / gaseous  state fuels
(the advantageous pumping efficiency provided by indirect pneumatic coupling with gazeous CNG nearly emulates the"no-pumping-friction" advantage provided by direct fuel injection system with gasoline);

NOTE: injecting low density compressible gaseous CNG fuel directly into denser air density medium of the combustion chamber
has not yet been proven practical,while handling & injecting cryogenic liquid LNG for heavy-duty 100% alternative fuel engine
 remains most challenging for the: Direct Injection Natural Gas DING engine.  
                                                                          (refer to:
OCT 30 2014
to reader at bottom
of this page
Although the current advanced state of the art GDI Direct Injection system (UAIC) is capable of controlling pumping-loss-friction of S.I. & C.I. Otto cycle engine burning relatively
heavy mass
non-compressible liquid state fuels; (without a throttled), direct fuel injection still remains highly challenged to suitably*and to timely control & inject and correctly mix with
air medium,
a light mass of compressible gaseous fuel such as methane, natural gas, or hydrogen ***  or any lighter mass gas timely and adequately into a relatively heavier mass
compressible gaseous medium
: (such as air in the cylinder of a direct fuel injection system engine) above moderate engine speed; but LTCev's indirect pneumatic coupling can
now allow to suitably
control pumping-loss-friction due to deltaP of  state of the art existing S.I. C.A.I.C. (throttled) Otto Cycle CNG , CH4 fueled engines. ***.
Otto cycle Range Extender I.C.E. component for  
plug-in electric hybrid vehicle Otto Cycle
IMELOM-MODE I.C.E. component
hic inceptant futura


this web site only discloses some major fundamental patented basic design parameters and elements of LTCev-1: an emerging light turbo compound engine variant in development using an
innovative adiabatic positive displacement Otto cycle gas-exchange air pumping coupling process for Otto cycle I.C.E. component by means of a closed-loop positive displacement "
silent &
pneumatic coupling turbo compound system and method reducing specific fuel consumption and ipso-facto reducing CO2 emissions as well as reducing other Otto cycle I.C.E.'s
raw emissions. Said closed-loop positive displacement air pumping system and method being achieved by means of a new simple lightweight pneumatic coupling turbo compound engine
variant provided with access to individually partitioned cylinder's dry-sump crankcase being alternately subjected to strategic timely
indirect pneumatic coupling pressure variations
generated by an  
inverted function turbocharger  aka:turboscavenger TM.

This system and method both substantially reduces the CAIC Otto cycle I.C.E. detrimental  pumping-loss friction while uniquely providing beneficial pumping-work assistance to CAIC at
higher engine loads and also providing even more beneficial pumping assistance to
UAIC   (Direct fuel  Injected ) SI. & C.I. Otto cycle I.C.E. therefore further enhancing said  UAIC  S.I. &
C.I. Otto cycle I.C.E.'s specific fuel efficiency without increasing NOx emissions by means of optimizing Otto gas-exchange cycles's specific air pumping task. Because it takes place in
 VVICC the Light Turbo Compound's  system and method advantageously does not interfere or alter the cylinder precise homogeneous or stratified air-fuel mixture charge
integrity and stability provided by state of the art direct fuel injection systems; making it
fully compatible to further enhance direct fuel injection system's efficiency significantly .The light
turbo compound system is applicable to several engine configurations either normally aspirated or charged controlled air intake cycle
CAIC (throttled) as well as uncontrolled air intake  
cycle aka:
UAIC direct fuel injection S.I. & C.I. Otto cycle I.C.E. being capable to use both different states fuels either in liquid or in a gaseous state.

Protecting the variable pressure optimization means of on-going
development  work including the  I.F.T. 's  unique VVICC's "air / stray-oil" separation control " of the LTCev-2's
wet-sump/dry-sump new  
VVICC's- PCV system for UAIC and for CAIC Otto cycle engine of LTCev-2's  patent applications, applicable to gaseous fuels including
H2 fueled I.C.E.*as well as protecting  its compatibility with other pending innovative ceramic  radiant heat-loss control development  and innovations, the
emerging indirect pneumatic coupling light turbo compound Otto cycle I.C.E. component range-extender ideal for next generation electric hybrid vehicles;
does not allow us to divulge yet more specific informations regarding the on-going  LTC ev' s  development's improvements in
this web site.


"LAGOM-size" Light Turbo Compound engine variant:  an emerging new green Otto cycle I.C.E. component paradigm   
It is known that said pumping-loss friction of CAIC (throttled) S.I. Otto cycle I.C.E. results from Delta P *resulting from regulating air/fuel mixture intake cycle flow to control liquid and gaseous fuel CAIC
engine power of S.I. Otto cycle engines; furthermore said pumping-loss friction negatively affects specific fuel efficiency of said Otto cycle S.I. engines as said pumping-loss friction is
directly proportional to
engine displacement and
inversely proportional to the magnitude of the throttle opening. Albeit engine downsizing has been a long proven economical way to minimize pumping-loss friction first used by
Europeans O.E.M. that ideally suited their lighter personal vehicles, engine-downsizing remains nevertheless a
"significantly limited" inexpensive compromise
High BMEP S.I. Otto cycle downsized turbocharged engine  can provide significantly high specific power output but said power is achieved through inevitable higher cost to control their increased NOx
emissions and soot and furthermore they are more vulnerable to intake valve carbon build-up that can increases emissions while reducing their fuel efficiency and drive ability if oil change schedule
frequency are not scrupulously respected. Furthermore, said higher
BMEP (over 30 bar) of the downsized engine does not only put additional strain on the engine structure and components, downsized
turbocharged engines require strict oil change schedule but more important concern is that
downsized turbocharged engine inevitably to become less fuel efficient when used dynamically in order to
match a
"lagom"-size engine's suitable wide power curve response capability and efficiency provided by  capable load-variable suitable flat ample wide low power curve lagom-size engine but not
suitablly provided by peaky narrower engine power curve,
especially in heavier vehicle's engine applications.

Direct fuel injection can control better Otto cycle
liquid state fuels I.C.E.'s pumping-loss friction and have also more advantages for improving fuel efficiency and emissions with liquid fuel; but is not as
capable with gaseous fuels.  The new emerging
indirect pneumatic coupling LTCev can not only provide a different and widely compatible way to eliminate pumping-loss friction at part-engine loads of full
CAIC strategy S.I.Otto cycle I.C.E. but it can also reduce specific fuel consumption while also retaining the more satisfying flexible responsive drive ability than the engine downsizing compromise.
The robust LTCev engine variant retains CAIC's drivability advantages* and reduce specific fuel consumption,but it also provides other raw emissions advantages over prior arts CAIC
strategy liquid state fuels engines and gaseous state fuels engines. It also have the unique possibility to generate precious fuel-saving pumping-gain-assistance mostly only at higher
engine loads for
CAIC , but also throughout the whole UAIC's operating range and is much more capable to further improve UAIC's  fuel efficiency while providing more enjoyable drivability
for personal vehicles at sustained usual engine load such as: providing a much more flexible wider and flatter power curve as well as more  responsive engine to sudden loads than the
common downsized engine compromise that is penalized by
NHV due to having to make the engine frequently work harder to either achieve higher BMEP being more heavily strained and
or to make the engine operated at higher RPM and require more gear changes. Furthermore, the small displacement (downsized-engine  compromise can actually increase
NOx emission and
also become also more vulnerable to
CEL due to neglected oil changes and to an increase of its raw emission level with aging; and provide less insurance of a trouble free extended  useful
life with an overly extended interval frequency of mandatory oil changes. Instead, the
robust LTCev using the lagom size engine  mostly free from  pumping-loss friction's disadvantage at
useful operating range can cost effectively emulate
direct fuel injection GDI's freedom from pumping-loss friction and  further substantially complement and enhance direct fuel injection
GDI's fuel efficiency to a higher level. Futhermore importantly, the LTCev when operating as a less BMEP strained larger displacement lagom size CAIC engine more efficiently by being
virtually immune to pumping-loss friction
at most useful engine loads as the direct fuel injection UAIC engine can provide required suitable ample power most efficiently with a more
moderate BMEP due to lagom size displacement. More important, reducing BMEP (with lagom sized displacement) to generate equivalent power efficiently makes it possible to finally
address more significantly the considerable
radiant heat-loss thermal inefficiency caused by Otto cycle I.C.E. 's radiant-heat-loss that is responsible for up to ~ 30 %  of lost fuel energy not
contributing to useful work. Said radiant-heat-loss partial thermal inefficiency could be better addressed via the use of know highly efficient thermally useful
ceramic component material
that could be used more in spite of their impractical use parly hampered in the past due to inherent ceramic material's brittleness. Said ceramic material brittleness is exacerbated and made
very vulnerable when used in fuel efficient Otto cycle I.C.E. operating at high BMEP as well as at high mechanical load and shocks as well as high RPM produced by hard working highly
efficient Otto cycle I.C.E. applications. Lagom displacement possible with LTCev engine may become part of viable solutions that could now be realistically be envisioned to safely cope
with ceramic by significantly reducing mechanically strained in fuller size (
lagom) LTCev engines with ceramic components implementation in order to begin to systematically address* to
reduce a larger portion of 30% radiant-heat-loss energy  and realistically contributes to increase Otto cycle I.C.E.'s thermal efficiency. *
(presently limited to exploratory stage)

Said new S.I. Otto cycle engine I.C.E. lagom sizing paradigm could uniquely provides a viable possibility to address to control radiant-heat-loss with ceramic components material used
with a lagom size low friction LTCev engine that can be operated efficiently at lesser BMEP; unlike fuel efficient
C.I. diesel hard working engine strategy or with the downsized high BMEP
S.I. Otto cycle engine compromise less suitable to cope with brittle ceramic components in intense dynamic Otto cycle mechanical load environment.
projected application; CNG fuels auomotive  Otto
S.I. conventional gasoline engine & CNG for
bi-fuel cars & light trucks
VELOM-mode vehicles  mode

Institution Emergency
Electric Generators
LTCev's projected use applications
1-3-4-2 In Line-4
Liquid & Gaseous
fuels  compatible
Liquid & Gaseous
fuels  compatible
another expanding VVICC (of a cylinder that is performing its Otto exhaust cycle). This new emerging   Light Turbo Compound engine variant differs by
being having been conceived from the start to provide  lower CO2 and to operate at a low noise level and be able to reduce raw HC (from reverse blow-by)
& NOx emissions of Otto cycle S.I. &  C.I.   I.C.E. . It uses an IFT blow-down turbine and impeller to generate mostly strategic under-pressure and some
positive pressure for optimizing and facilitating the Otto cycle gas exchange's efficiency during Otto intake and Otto exhaust cycle pumping process to
further reduce CO2 emission with a robust simple lightweight  cost effective turbo compound Otto cycle engine. It provides a simple fuel efficient  turbo
compound engine component "range extender" for state of :
cycles confined between piston's stroke TDC (A) & piston's stroke BDC (B) as outlined for
Otto cycle cylinder expanding & contracting animation for an Otto cycle with an 1-3-4-2 In
Line- firing-order .
    NOTE:   A & B =  actual engine cylinder's displacement
    simultaneously Light Turbo Compound 's timely alternate expanding and
    contracting pneumatic (Variable Volume  Individual Cylinder Crankcase)
    VVICC is (confined to the volume under piston's underside's face's
    movement between C & D  including also  the circular volume allowed
    between D & E for crankshaft's & con-rod's assembly's rotation for each
    individually accessible distinct individual cylinder's VVICC in the LTCev's
    dry-sump partition of the wet-sump/dry-sump crankcase section ( D-E )
    simultaneously taking place for an 1-3-4-2 firing order Otto cycle  engine;
    but is not illustrated here.
An outlined animation for the LTCev's  VVICC's pneumatic function is not yet  available .
projected application: light turbo compound
engine variant for use in personal day cruisers
& larger outboard motor engines range
Otto cycle
SMELOM-MODE  marine engine
reciprocating pistons   CH4 gas engine variant
essential affordable genset energy accessibility
electric hybrid vehicle ice component & modular genset's   I.C.E.
Sorry, site in construction