Awareness of the alarming climate changes resulting from increasing insidious anthropogenic emissions that the use of Internal combustion engines contribute to approximately 20% +
of all the anthropogenic emissions  incited R&D MACHMA Inc. to ambitiously instigate means to further develop and better adapt the century old thousands of times perfected into a
reliable simple and proven lightweight and cost effective long proven and dependable -power producer S.I.Otto cycle reciprocating piston internal Internal Combustion I.C.E. for the
millenum's sustainable requirements by improving turbo compound engines by new means of recuperating the normally lost and wasted exhaust cycle's thermal and kinetic energy
of the high fuel efficiency turbo compound engine still immature technology by using new patented double complementary direct and indirect pneumatic coupling means that
provide light, silent, and robust pneumatic coupling arrangement means  allowing high fuel efficiency low GHG emission.
The TCev can uniquely provide a higher fuel efficiency and ipso facto a lower carbon footprint
without increasing GHG nor cancer irenic emissions unlike diesel engines do. The LTCev light turbo compound engine
variant is a much cleaner and quieter fuel efficient engine that is also
compatible with gaseous state fuels and liquid state fuels including CNG , CH4 methane, propane as well as  
biogas  & biofuels  technology but retaining compatibility with existing advanced state of the art fossil
fuels control technology
mainly aimed at improving Otto cycle I.C.E. specific fuel efficiency by as much as ~15%+ that proportionnally reduce its CO2 anthropogenic emissions
while providing a new  technology that can substantially reduces NOx emissions and curb other forms of Otto cycle I.C.E. 's combustion generated raw emissions*
such as : HC, CO, particulates matter, or soot,
Pneumatic coupling Light Turbo Compound engine variant       
individually partitioned VVICC dry-sump /wet-sump     IL4   LTCev
projected application: light turbo compound engine variant for
use in light airplane & light helicopter  used below 10,000 feet
S.I Otto cycle
SHELOM-mode fail-safe aero engine
Inverted
Function
Turbocharger     
I.F.T.

COPYRIGHT R&D M I  
IJEIT
Although the current advanced state of the art GDI Direct Injection system (UAIC) is capable of controlling pumping-loss-friction of S.I. & C.I. Otto cycle engine burning relatively
heavy mass
non-compressible liquid state fuels; (without a throttled), direct fuel injection still remains highly challenged to suitably*and to timely control & inject and correctly mix with
air medium,
a light mass of compressible gaseous fuel such as methane, natural gas, or hydrogen ***  or any lighter mass gas timely and adequately into a relatively heavier mass
compressible gaseous medium
: (such as air in the cylinder of a direct fuel injection system engine) above moderate engine speed; but LTCev's indirect pneumatic coupling can
now allow to suitably
control pumping-loss-friction due to deltaP of  state of the art existing S.I. C.A.I.C. (throttled) Otto Cycle CNG , CH4 fueled engines. ***.
Otto cycle Range Extender I.C.E. component for  
plug-in electric hybrid vehicle Otto Cycle
S.I.
IMELOM-MODE I.C.E. component
TURBOSCAVENGER TM
hic inceptant futura
TM
* IMPORTANT NOTE TO READER * :

this web site only discloses some major fundamental patented basic design parameters and elements of LTCev-1: an emerging light turbo compound engine variant in development using an
innovative adiabatic positive displacement Otto cycle gas-exchange air pumping coupling process for Otto cycle I.C.E. component by means of a closed-loop positive displacement "
silent &
enclosed"
pneumatic coupling turbo compound system and method reducing specific fuel consumption and ipso-facto reducing CO2 emissions as well as reducing other Otto cycle I.C.E.'s
raw emissions. Said closed-loop positive displacement air pumping system and method being achieved by means of a new simple lightweight pneumatic coupling turbo compound engine
variant provided with access to individually partitioned cylinder's dry-sump crankcase being alternately subjected to strategic timely
indirect pneumatic coupling pressure variations
generated by an  
inverted function turbocharger  aka:turboscavenger TM.

This system and method both substantially reduces the CAIC Otto cycle I.C.E. detrimental  pumping-loss friction while uniquely providing beneficial pumping-work assistance to CAIC at
higher engine loads and also providing even more beneficial pumping assistance to
UAIC   (Direct fuel  Injected ) SI. & C.I. Otto cycle I.C.E. therefore further enhancing said  UAIC  S.I. &
C.I. Otto cycle I.C.E.'s specific fuel efficiency without increasing NOx emissions by means of optimizing Otto gas-exchange cycles's specific air pumping task. Because it takes place in
crankcase's
 VVICC the Light Turbo Compound's  system and method advantageously does not interfere or alter the cylinder precise homogeneous or stratified air-fuel mixture charge
integrity and stability provided by state of the art direct fuel injection systems; making it
fully compatible to further enhance direct fuel injection system's efficiency significantly .The light
turbo compound system is applicable to several engine configurations either normally aspirated or charged controlled air intake cycle
CAIC (throttled) as well as uncontrolled air intake  
cycle aka:
UAIC direct fuel injection S.I. & C.I. Otto cycle I.C.E. being capable to use both different states fuels either in liquid or in a gaseous state.

Protecting the variable pressure optimization means of on-going
development  work including the  I.F.T. 's  unique VVICC's "air / stray-oil" separation control " of the LTCev-2's
wet-sump/dry-sump new  
VVICC's- PCV system for UAIC and for CAIC Otto cycle engine of LTCev-2's  patent applications, applicable to gaseous fuels including
H2 fueled I.C.E.*as well as protecting  its compatibility with other pending innovative ceramic  radiant heat-loss control development  and innovations, the
emerging indirect pneumatic coupling light turbo compound Otto cycle I.C.E. component range-extender ideal for next generation electric hybrid vehicles;
does not allow us to divulge yet more specific informations regarding the on-going  LTC ev' s  development's improvements in
this web site.

R&D MACHMA INC
58

"LAGOM-size" Light Turbo Compound engine variant:  an emerging new green Otto cycle I.C.E.
component paradigm
  
It is known that said pumping-loss friction of CAIC (throttled) S.I. Otto cycle I.C.E. results from Delta P *resulting from regulating air/fuel mixture intake cycle
flow to control liquid and gaseous fuel
CAIC engine power of S.I. Otto cycle engines; furthermore said pumping-loss friction negatively affects specific fuel
efficiency of said Otto cycle S.I. engines as said pumping-loss friction is
directly proportional to engine displacement and inversely proportional to the
magnitude of the throttle opening. Albeit engine downsizing has been a long proven economical way to minimize pumping-loss friction first used by Europeans
O.E.M. that ideally suited their lighter personal vehicles, engine-downsizing remains nevertheless a
"significantly limited" inexpensive compromise
.
www.automotiveworld.com/analysis/powertrain-analysis/93953-engine-downsizing
High BMEP S.I. Otto cycle downsized turbocharged engine  can provide significantly high specific power output but said power is achieved through
inevitable higher cost to control their increased
NOx emissions and soot and furthermore they are more vulnerable to intake valve carbon build-up that can
increases emissions while reducing their fuel efficiency and drive ability if oil change schedule frequency are not scrupulously respected. Furthermore,
said higher
BMEP (over 30 bar) of the downsized engine does not only put additional strain on the engine structure and components, downsized
turbocharged engines require strict oil change schedule but more important concern is that
downsized turbocharged engine inevitably to become less fuel
efficient when used dynamically in order to match a
"lagom"-size engine's suitable wide power curve response capability and efficiency provided by  
capable load-variable suitable flat ample wide low power curve lagom-size engine but not suitablly provided by peaky narrower engine power curve,
especially in heavier vehicle's engine applications.

Direct fuel injection can control better Otto cycle
liquid state fuels I.C.E.'s pumping-loss friction and have also more advantages for improving fuel
efficiency and emissions with liquid fuel; but is not as capable with gaseous fuels.  The new emerging
indirect pneumatic coupling LTCev can not only
provide a different and widely compatible way to eliminate
pumping-loss friction at part-engine loads of full size CAIC strategy S.I.Otto cycle I.C.E. but it
can also reduce specific fuel consumption while also retaining the more satisfying flexible responsive drive ability than the engine downsizing
compromise.
The robust LTCev engine variant retains CAIC's drivability advantages* and reduce specific fuel consumption,but it also provides
other raw emissions advantages over prior arts CAIC strategy liquid state fuels engines and gaseous state fuels engines. It also have the unique
possibility to generate precious fuel-saving
pumping-gain-assistance mostly only at higher engine loads for CAIC , but also throughout the
whole UAIC's operating range and is much more capable to further improve
UAIC's  fuel efficiency while providing more enjoyable drivability for
personal vehicles at sustained usual engine load such as: providing a much more flexible wider and flatter power curve as well as more  
responsive engine to sudden loads than the common downsized engine compromise that is penalized by
NHV due to having to make the
engine frequently work harder to either achieve higher
BMEP being more heavily strained and or to make the engine operated at higher RPM
and require more gear changes. Furthermore, the small displacement (downsized-engine  compromise can actually increase
NOx emission and
also become also more vulnerable to
CEL due to neglected oil changes and to an increase of its raw emission level with aging; and provide less
insurance of a trouble free extended  useful life with an overly extended interval frequency of mandatory oil changes. Instead, the
robust LTCev
using the
lagom size engine  mostly free from  pumping-loss friction's disadvantage at useful operating range can cost effectively emulate
direct fuel injection GDI's freedom from pumping-loss friction and  further substantially complement and enhance direct fuel injection (GDI's
fuel efficiency to a higher level. Futhermore importantly, the LTCev when operating as a less
BMEP strained larger displacement lagom size
CAIC engine more efficiently by being virtually immune to pumping-loss friction at most useful engine loads as the direct fuel injection UAIC
engine can provide required suitable ample power most efficiently with a more moderate BMEP due to lagom size displacement. More important,
reducing BMEP (with lagom sized displacement) to generate equivalent power efficiently makes it possible to finally address more significantly
the considerable
radiant heat-loss thermal inefficiency caused by Otto cycle I.C.E. 's radiant-heat-loss that is responsible for up to ~ 30 %  of
lost fuel energy
not contributing to useful work. Said radiant-heat-loss partial thermal inefficiency could be better addressed via the use of
know highly efficient thermally useful
ceramic component material that could be used more in spite of their impractical use parly hampered in
the past due to inherent ceramic material's brittleness. Said ceramic material brittleness is exacerbated and made very vulnerable when used in
fuel efficient Otto cycle I.C.E. operating at high BMEP as well as at high mechanical load and shocks as well as high RPM produced by hard
working highly efficient Otto cycle I.C.E. applications. Lagom displacement possible with LTCev engine may become part of viable solutions
that could now be realistically be envisioned to safely cope with ceramic by significantly reducing mechanically strained in fuller size (
lagom)
LTCev engines with ceramic components implementation in order to begin to systematically address* to reduce a larger portion of 30%
radiant-heat-loss energy  and realistically contributes to increase Otto cycle I.C.E.'s thermal efficiency. *
(presently limited to exploratory stage)

Said new S.I. Otto cycle engine I.C.E. lagom sizing paradigm could uniquely provides a viable possibility to address to control radiant-heat-loss
with ceramic components material used with a lagom size low friction LTCev engine that can be operated efficiently at lesser BMEP; unlike fuel
efficient
C.I. diesel hard working engine strategy or with the downsized high BMEP
S.I. Otto cycle engine compromise less suitable to cope with brittle ceramic components in intense dynamic Otto cycle mechanical load
environment.
projected application; CNG fuels auomotive  Otto
S.I. conventional gasoline engine & CNG for
bi-fuel cars & light trucks
VELOM-mode vehicles  mode
.............A
.............B
........C
........D


........E
ESSENTIAL SERVICES & INSTITUTIONS
EMERGENCY Back-Up
Genset Electrical Gas Engine

Complementary Grid  Back-Up
Light Turbo Compound Gas engine
Electric Generators
LTCev's projected use applications
1-3-4-2 In Line-4
firing-order
Gaseous Fuels
&
Liquid Fuels
Genset I.C.E.
 
COMPATIBLE
cycles confined between piston's stroke TDC (A) & piston's stroke BDC (B) as
outlined for Otto cycle cylinder expanding & contracting animation for an Otto cycle
with an 1-3-4-2 In Line- firing-order .
NOTE:   A & B =  actual engine cylinder's displacement
simultaneously Light Turbo Compound 's timely alternate expanding and
contracting pneumatic (
Variable Volume  Individual Cylinder Crankcase)
VVICC
is (confined to the volume under piston's underside's face's
movement between
C & D  including also  the circular volume allowed
between
D & E for crankshaft's & con-rod's assembly's rotation for each
individually accessible distinct individual cylinder's VVICC in the LTCev's
dry-sump partition of the wet-sump/dry-sump crankcase section (
D-E )
simultaneously taking place for an 1-3-4-2 firing order Otto cycle  engine;
but i
s not illustrated here.
An outlined animation for the LTCev's  VVICC's pneumatic function is not yet  available .
projected application: light turbo compound
engine variant for use in personal day cruisers
& larger outboard motor engines range
Otto cycle
SMELOM-MODE  marine engine
During Otto Intake cycle, as the cylinder volume expands, the VVICC ( Variable Volume Individual Cylinder Crankcase) contracts while the I.F.T. assist in further evacuating said
VVICC. into the VVICC of a cylinder that is performing its Otto Exhaust cycle.  This new emerging & Light Turbo Compound engine variant differs by being having been conceived
from the start to produce substantially less  CO2 emissions  and to operate at a low noise level and be able to reduce raw HC (from reverse blow-by) & NOx emissions of Otto
cycle S.I. C.I.  I.C.E. . It uses an IFT blow-down turbine and impeller to generate mostly strategic under-pressure and some positive pressure for optimizing and facilitating the Otto
cycle gas exchange's efficiency during Otto intake and Otto exhaust cycle pumping process to further reduce CO2 emission with a robust simple lightweight cost effective turbo
compound Otto cycle engine. It provides a simple fuel efficient turbo compound engine component range extender for state of state of the art Personal Electric Hybrid Vehicles.
TM

Light-Turbo-Compound engine variant
suitable for
reciprocating-pistons GENSET CH4 / CNG   gas engine
* gaseous fuels & liquid fuels compatibility
* IMPORTANT NOTE *
to reader at bottom
of this page